Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management

Tantangan dalam Diagnosis dan Manajemen

Keywords: Patent Foramen Ovale, Cryptogenic Stroke, Paradoxical Embolism, Echocardiography, Device Closure


A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common disorder that affects between 20-34% of the adult population. This condition is a benign finding for most people. However, In some the PFO can open widely and enabling paradoxical embolism to transit from venous to arterial circulation, which is associated with stroke and systemic embolization. There are still unclear to date regarding the effectiveness of pharmacological anticoagulant therapy, defined as antithrombin or antiplatelet therapy, which has proven to be more beneficial for patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke. In addition, surgical and transcutaneous PFO closure has been proposed for secondary prevention of stroke in patients with cryptogenic stroke with PFO. Both catheter-based and surgical modes of closure have been shown to reduce the incidence of subsequent embolism substantially. This review will discuss the evidence regarding the relationship between PFO and cryptogenic stroke and decision making for management strategies.


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Author Biographies

Dhanang Ali Yafi, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh

General Practitioner. Prof. Dr. Sulianti Saroso Infectious Disease Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Azmi Azmi, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh

General Practitioner. Malahayati General Hospital, Bireun, Aceh, Indonesia.


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How to Cite
Yafi, D., & Azmi, A. (2021). Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management. Indonesian Journal of Cardiology, 42(3).

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