Principles of the 3Rs and ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Research
AbstractThe use of animals in research has concerned the general public and thoughtful researchers for a long time. For improved animal welfare and increased research quality, researchers have moral obligations to include the 3Rs. The Three Rs are basic principles of humane experimental technique that were first set out by Russell and Burch in 1959. They are now widely accepted within the international scientific community and in associated legislation and guidelines, as a means of avoiding or reducing animal use and suffering and helping to improve the quality of science. When reporting animal studies, it is recommended that manuscripts conform to the principals of the Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines, incorporated the 3Rs principal.
models of disease reliably inform human studies? PLoS Med.
2010;7(3):e1000245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000245.
2. Macleod MR, Fisher M, O’Collins V, et al. Good laboratory
practice: preventing introduction of bias at the bench. Stroke.
3. Sherwin CM. Animal welfare: reporting details is good science.
4. Jafari P, Azuaje F. An assessment of recently published gene expression
analyses: reporting experimental design and stattistics.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2006;6:27
5. Pound P, Ebrahim S, Sandercock P, et al. Where is the evidence that
animal research benefits humans? BMJ. 2004;328:514–517.
6. Chalmers I, Glasziou P. Avoidable waste in the production and
reporting of research evidence. Lancet. 2009;374:86–89.
7. Wurbel H. Publications should include an animal welfare section.
8. Macleod MR, Collins T, Howells DW, Donnan GA. Pooling of
animal experimental data reveals influence of study design and
publication bias. Stroke. 2004;35:1203–8.
9. Mignini LE, Khan KS. Methodological quality of systematic
reviews of animal studies: a survey of reviews of basic research.
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006;6:10.
10. Törnqvist E, Annas A, Granath B, et al. Strategic focus on 3R
principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical
toxicity testing. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(7):e101638.
11. Ohno Y. ICH Guidelines—implementation of the 3Rs (refinement,
reduction, and replacement): incorporating best scientific
practices into the regulatory process. Institute for Laboratory
Animal Research J. 2002;43(Suppl 1):S95–S98.
12. Flecknell P. Replacement, reduction and refinement. Altex.
13. Schuppli CA, Fraser D. The interpretation and application of
the three Rs by animal ethics committee members. Altern Lab
14. Mellor DJ. Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” by updating
the “Five Provisions” and introducing aligned “Animal Welfare
Aims”. Animals. 2016;6,59. doi: 10.3390/ani6100059.
15. Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, et al. Animal research:
reporting in vivo experiments: the ARRIVE guidelines. PLoS
16. Cressey D. Surge in support for animal-research guidelines:
journals throw their weight behind checklist for rigorous animal
experiments. Nature. 2016. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19274.
17. National Research Council. Chapter 2: Animal care and Use
Program in Guide For the care and Use of laboratory Animals.
Eight Edition. Washington DC: National Academy of Science;
2011. p. 11-40.
18. Komisi Nasional Etik penelitian Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan
RI. Pedoman nasional etik penggunaan hewan percobaan.
Suplemen II: Etik penggunaan hewan percobaan. Jakarta:Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2006.
19. Fakultas Kedokteran hewan IPB. Unit Pengelola Hewan Laboraturium. Tersedia pada http://fkh.ipb.ac.id/fasilitas/unit-pengelola-hewan-laboratorium-uphl/. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2017.
20. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro. FK Undip sediakan laboratorium hewan coba. Tersedia pada http://www.undip.ac.id/?p=3346&lang=id. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2017.
21. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada. Profil ruang hewan coba FK UGM. Tersedia pada http://research.fk.ugm.ac.id/index.php/laboratorium/laboratorium-hewan-coba. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2017.
22. Marice S, Raflizar. Status gizi dan fungsi hati mencit galur CBS-swiss dan tikus putih galur wistar di laboratorium hewan percobaan puslitbang biomedis dan farmasi. Media Litbang Kesehatan. 2010; 20(1):33-40.
23. European Comission. Animal used for scientific purposes. Tersedia pada http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/home_en.htm. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2017.
24. Netherlands National Committe for The Protection of Animal Used for Scientific Purposes. Opinion provided by NCAd as to how the Netherlands can become a pioneer in non-animal research. Tersedia pada https://english.ncadierproevenbeleid.nl/. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2017.
25. Centrale Commissie Dierproven. Tersedia pada https://www.centralecommissiedierproeven.nl/. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2017.
26. Instantie voor dierenwelzijn Utrecht. EU Guideline on Animal Experiment. Tersedia pada https://www.centralecommissiedierproeven.nl/. Diakses 1 Februari 2017.
PDF downloads: 2198
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).