A Case Series Coexistence of PFO with Other Conditions - Who’s the Culprit?

  • Dessytha Nathania Hudaja Universitas Pelita Harapan
  • Aurea Stella Soetjipto
  • Queen Sugih Ariyani
  • Michael Soesanto
  • Ingrid Maria Pardede
Keywords: Cryptogenic stroke, Patent foramen ovale, Occult atrial fibrillation, Thrombophilia



  • Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a major cause of cryptogenic stroke (CS). However, it is still possible that PFO comes with those other conditions during evaluation. This paper presents a series of CS cases highly suspected due to PFO origin with each of its special presentations.
  • Case illustration/summary of a review article: We present three cases of CS with PFO as a possible contributing factor. Case 1 showed a patient with repeated ischemic strokes that was investigated to be cryptogenic in origin. Case 2 showed CS with PFO and occult atrial fibrillation. Case 3 showed CS at a young age caused by a PFO with protein C/S deficiency.
  • Conclusion: The role of PFO as a culprit, risk factor, or a coincidental finding in CS is still debatable and is a controversial issue. Determining PFO as a cause of CS requires a thorough consideration of clinical and PFO anatomical/morphological factors.


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How to Cite
Hudaja, D., Soetjipto, A., Ariyani, Q., Soesanto, M., & Pardede, I. (2021). A Case Series Coexistence of PFO with Other Conditions - Who’s the Culprit?. Indonesian Journal of Cardiology, 42(3). https://doi.org/10.30701/ijc.1155